Pibgorn a Phibau

Mae’r bibgod wedi ei chofnodi yng Nghymru ers y 12fed ganrif o leiaf. Yn y 10fed ganrif, ac mewn fersiynau mwy diweddar yn dyddio o’r 12fed a’r 13eg ganrif, roedd Cyfreithiau Hywel Dda yn cynnig gwybodaeth am statws cerddoriaeth yng Nghymru. Mae’r gyfraith yn datgan y dylai’r brenin gydnabod statws y meistri o grefftwyr a oedd yn ei wasanaethu drwy roi offeryn addas i bob un, sef telyn, crwth neu bibgod.

Cynhaliodd yr Arglwydd Rhys wledd Nadolig yn Aberteifi yn 1176; dyma ddechrau’r Eisteddfod, yr ŵyl sy’n adnabyddus i ni heddiw.

Adeg y Nadolig y flwyddyn honno, cynhaliodd yr Arglwydd Rhys ap Gruffudd ei lys mewn ysblander yn Aberteifi, yn y castell. Ac fe osododd ddau fath o gystadleuaeth yno: un rhwng yr amrywiol feirdd a phrydyddion, a’r llall rhwng y telynorion a’r crythorion a’r pibyddion a’r gwahanol ddosbarthiadau o grefftau cerddorol.  Ac fe orchmynodd bod dwy gadair yn cael eu gosod i’r enillwyr

Ond gyda dirywiad cyffredinol cerddoriaeth draddodiadol Gymreig yn y 19eg ganrif, diflannodd y bibgod o’r tir. Nid oes yr un enghraifft bendant o’r bibgod a ddefnyddiwyd yng Nghymru wedi goroesi, ond mae lluniau a cherfluniau ar gael sy’n dangos math o bibgod sy’n debyg iawn i’r rhai a ddefnyddir yn Llydaw ac yng Ngalisia. Ambell waith, cyfeirir at yr rhain wrth yr enw ‘Pibgod yr Iwerydd’.

Mae hefyd ddisgrifiad o Sir Fôn o offeryn, sydd efallai yn bibgod, a chwaraewyd gan gowmyn; mae iddi gorn buwch yn sownd wrth yr alaw bib, ac mae’n bur debyg taw pibgorn gyda chwd oedd hon.

Dros y 30 mlynedd ddiwethaf mae pibydda wedi gweld adfywiad yma yng Nghymru. Mae’r repertoire o alawon Cymreig i’r pibau wedi cael ei ail-ddarganfod a’i ddatblygu; mae’r offerynnau, yn seiliedig ar bibau o Lydaw a Galisia, wedi cael eu datblygu, ac mae defnydd yn cael ei wneud o bibau o’r ardaloedd hynny.

Y Pibgorn Cymreig

Mae gan yr alaw bib geg corn buwch sy’n gorchuddio ac yn gwarchod y gorsen, a chloch o gorn buwch i fwyhau’r sain. Corsen sengl, wedi’i gwneud fel arfer o wiail neu ddeunydd synthetig, sydd i’r offeryn ac mae nifer o esiamplau, yn dyddio o’r 18fed a’r 19eg ganrif, wedi goroesi.  Mae’n debyg taw’r pibgorn yw rhagflaenydd y bibgod, a bod y god wedi’i chysylltu â’r alaw bib i wneud hi’n haws chwarae’r offeryn, fel y mae’r disgrifiad uchod o Sir Fôn yn awgrymu. Gelwir rhain yn bibau corn/cyrn. Mae’r bibgod a chwythir o’r geg yn cynnwys alaw bib corsen sengl, corn i fwyhau’r sain a bâs drôn. Ar hyn o bryd mae Gafin Morgan wrthi’n creu pibgorn cwbl synthetig ar gyfer dechreuwyr, plant neu at ddefnydd mewn ysgolion ayyb.

Mae’r gwneuthurwr offerynnau, Gerard KilBride, wedi llunio gwefan sy’n rhoi cyfarwyddyd i chi o sut i wneud pibgorn o bren ysgaw; ewch i www.pibgyrn.com

Dros benwythnos Mehefin 22-24ain 2012, cynhaliwyd yr Ŵyl Bibgorn gyntaf ym Mhontsticyll, Merthyr Tydfil – Gŵyl Pibgyrn Pontsticill – wedi’i threfnu gan Gerard KilBride a’r pibyddion lleol Gafin Morgan ac Antwn Owen-Hicks, gyda chymorth gwirfoddolwyr o Fagad Pibau Morgannwg.

Diolch i Antwn Owen Hicks a Gafin Morgan am y wybodaeth – am ragor o fanylion ewch i’w gwefan yn www.welshbagpipes.co.uk

 

Below are some other quotes from various sources about bagpipes and piping in Wales.
Henry Balfour (1891) The Old British “Pibcorn” or “Hornpipe” and its Affinities.

Both hornpipes and bagpipes had formerly a far more general distribution in Europe, the result of a gradual migration westward, surviving only in the more remote regions, amongst pastoral people, as, for example, in Brittany the Pibcorn and Biniou (bagpipes), in Wales Pibgorn and Pibau (bagpipes); in Scotland the Stock-horn and Scotch Bagpipes. It would seem that these instruments were brought to the British Islands with the Celtic immigration and they have survived particularly in those regions in which the Celtic blood has held its own.

Theophilus Jones, Carnhuanawc

What is known as the horse wedding took place in 1852. There was all the mirth and jollity of bygone days. But one feature was missing, that appealed to the ear as well as the eye; where was old Edward of Gwern, y pebydd (the piper), who, mounted upon his white steed and pouring forth the wild music of the bagpipe, had headed many a wedding party in their half frantic gallop over hill and vale.

William Merdith Morris, Cwm Gwaun, Cwm Rhondda

Mabsantau, neithioirau, gwylnosau, were their red-letter days, and the rude merrimaking of the village green the pivot of all that was worth living for in a mundane existence. I do not remember much about the gwylmabsant and the gwylnos – I came a quarter of a century too late for those wonderful orgies – but I remember the neithior with its all-day and all-night rollicking fun. We did not have the crwth, but we had the fiddle, and occasionally the harp, or a home-made degenerate sort of pibgorn. I myself am a tolerable player on the simplified bibgorn alas the pibgyrn are all gone today and I doubt whether there is one left of the old shepherd players.

Peniarth 20 (c.1330)

Tri ryw brifgerd ysyd, nyt amgen: kerd dant, kerd vegin, a cherd dauawt.
Teir prifgerd tant ysyd, nyt amgen: kerd grwth, kerd delyn, a cherd timpan.
Teir prifgerd megin ysyd, nyt amgen: organ, a phibeu, a cherd y got.
Teir prifgerd tauawt ysyd: prydu, a dachanu, a chanu gan delyn.

There are three main crafts, namely: the craft of the string, the craft of wind, and the craft of the tongue.
There are three main types of string music, namely: crwth music, harp music, and dulcimer music.
There are three main types of wind music, namely: organ, and pipes, and bagpipe music.
There are three main crafts of the tongue: making poetry, and reciting, and singing it with the harp.

Iolo Goch (late 14th century)

To Sir Hywel of the Axe, Constable of Cricieth Castle
Did anyone ever see what I see
at night — do I not do well?–
when I, greatest pain that ever was,
am sleeping, ageing nature?
First of all I see, in truth,
a magnificent fort yonder by the shore,
and a marvellous fine castle,
and men at table , and light,
and blue sea against a fair stone wall,
and foam about the base of a grim dark tower,
and lively music of pipes
and bag, and fine-looking men
enjoying dancing and song …

Thanks to Antwn Owen Hicks and Gafin Morgan for the information – for more, see their website at www.welshbagpipes.co.uk

Am trac
cyfeiriadur trac
dyddiadur trac
trac: Traddodiadau Cerdd Cymru
© 2019 trac Elusen Gofrestredig: 1085422;
Cwmni cyfyngedig drwy warant: 4106014

RHESTRWCH I GAEL E-NEWYDDION+

CYSYLLTWCH Â NI+

trac
Blwch Post 205
Y BARRI CF63 9FF
01446 748 556
trac@trac-cymru.org